What vaccines do I need for traveling in Europe, Italy and France?

As far as I’m aware, no vaccinations are needed for Italy and France. Speaking as someone who has stayed in Europe for a large part of my life, and travel there frequently for work/play. Neither country’s tourism board also recommends any necessary vaccinations. Have a great trip!

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Human

Is it safe to take multiple vaccines in a day?

Yes, it's safe to take more than 1 vaccine in the same day. For travellers who need vaccinations, it's common for doctors to administer multiple shots (regardless of your age). Evidence has shown that getting several vaccines at the same time does not cause any health problems. Your body's immune system is continuously challenged by external stimuli called antigens, which can be either breathed in or "eaten". It responds by making antibodies and disease-fighting immune cells.

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Human

Which cancers can be prevented with vaccines?

There are no cancers totally preventable by vaccinations. I would explain that some vaccines can reduce the risk of cancers but not totally prevent it. A good example is the Cervical Cancer Vaccine or HPV (Human Papillomavirus Vaccine). It reduces the risk of contracting strains of HPV which is a direct causatory factor for cervical cancer but it does not totally eliminate the risk of contracting these cancer causing strains of viruses. Another example is the Hepatitis B vaccine which prevents someone from contracting the Hepatitis B virus which is a major risk factor for Liver Cancer.

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Dr Wenus Ho

Aesthetic, General Practitioner

How effective is the HPV vaccine?

The effectiveness depends on many factors. For it to be most effective, you should take it as young as possible (9years old), before the first intercourse. Also it depends on which country you are in. But overall, it is still a very effective vaccine to prevent against cancer, a devastating illness.

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Dr Paul Ang

General Practitioner

Can one be fully protected against HPV with a vaccine?

No. There are more than 100 different strains of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Some of them are known to cause Genital Warts, which is an STI, whereas others are linked to skin warts on the feet, fingers etc, but are not STI. HPV that causes genital warts are usually spread by direct skin-to-skin contact during sexual exposure (vaginal, anal and oral) or even heavy petting. The transmission occurs when warts are present but is also possible even when there are no visible signs. There are individuals who carry the virus for months and years but do not show signs.

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Human

Do we need to get a measles vaccination if we are headed to Taiwan or Japan due to the measles outbreak?

Yes, I'd suggest visiting your GP to get a second dose, if you are unsure whether you've had 1 or 2 shots. Your doctor can do a simple blood test to check if you have immunity. However, the blood test can actually cost more than getting the second shot of the vaccine, so if you're really worried, just go ahead with the second shot! 2 doses of the MMR vaccine grant life-long protection against measles, even into adulthood. One dose of vaccine is 95% protective, and two doses provide 99% protection.

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Human

What is the link between shingles and chicken pox?

Source: https://www. healthline. com/health/shingles-contagious#risk-factors It's likely that your dad has had chicken pox in the past before. This is because shingles is caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Antiviral medicines such as acyclovir can help to treat shingles and shorten the length and severity of illness. They need to be taken as soon as possible to be the most effective. The only way to reduce the risk of developing shingles is to get vaccinated.

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Human

Is the MMR vaccine safe, or does it cause autism?

The MMR vaccine is completely safe, and does not cause autism. Vaccination is very important because it prevents diseases that can cause permanent complications and death. In the case of the MMR vaccine, it prevents measles, mumps, and rubella. Measles complications include ear infection, diarrhea, pneumonia, brain damage, and death. Mumps complications include swelling of the testicles or ovaries, deafness, inflammation of the brain and/or tissue covering the brain and spinal cord (encephalitis/meningitis) and, rarely, death.

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Human

What are some ways to reduce pain during intramuscular injections?

Hi there, The are a couple of ways that I can think off on the top of my head:1. Avoid the injection if possible i. e. consider oral medication where available2. Use the smallest needle possible3. Consider using a topical anaesthetic agent such as Emla cream4. Ask an experienced practitioner to do the injection5. Progressively infiltrate with local anaesthetic while doing the injectionHope this helps.

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Dr Dinesh Sirisena

Sport Medicine

How much would it cost to get a Gardasil 9 HPV vaccine?

The Gardasil 9 vaccine costs at least S$600 for the full course. It would be advisable to call up the clinic to enquire on their cost and stock availability before heading down to the clinic. Do note that the G9 vaccine is also not Medisave claimable unlike the Cervarix or Gardasil 4 vaccines (up to S$400).

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Human

For someone who had chicken pox in the early twenties, do I still need Varicella vaccination?

Chickenpox is a virus that hides inside our body forever. It hides in the nerve cells, and sometimes when your immunity is poor, it can flare up and become shingles/zoster. Our body will continue to produce antibodies (immunity) to control the virus. There is no need to get a chickenpox vaccine in this case.

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Dr Paul Ang

General Practitioner

Can I still get the Gardasil 9 vaccine if I am older than 26 years old, and what are the benefits and considerations in getting it past the CDC approved age?

The Gardasil 9 vaccination provides protection against cervical cancer as well as warts. When a medication or injection is approved by the government, it relies on research to support the claims made by the medications. In this case, the claim is that: In the few thousands of patients that the company gave the vaccine to, these girls were between 9 to 26 years old. And according to the research, the injection did reach the outcomes that it claims. And hence, this is called the "label indication".

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Answered By

Dr Paul Ang

General Practitioner

Why should males get the HPV vaccine?

Males also can get protection for warts, which are irritating cauliflower growths that can happen anywhere on the body. Also males can be protected against anal and penile cancer. Lastly, males can protect their partners from getting cancers related toHPV.

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Dr Paul Ang

General Practitioner

Why are chickenpox vaccinations not compulsory in Singapore if herd immunity can be achieved like in the case of measles?

It is an interesting question and the best person to answer this question would be a public health expert. In Singapore, only 2 vaccines are compulsory by law - diphtheria (part of the 5-in1 DTaP vaccine) and measles (part of MMR vaccine). The other vaccines that are part of the childhood immunisation schedule and are required for Primary 1 registration are: bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), pertussis, tetanus, polio (part of DTaP vaccine), mumps and rubella (part of MMR) and hepatitis B.

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Answered By

Dr Soon Wee Quah

General Practitioner

Where can I get Hepatitis B vaccine in Singapore and how much do they cost?

Most GP clinics and polyclinics will carry the hepatitis B vaccine. Grberally it costs 45 before GST. Also you can use your medisave to take this vaccination, so it is reallyaffordable one.

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Answered By

Dr Paul Ang

General Practitioner

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