How does developing a varicose vein at the scrotum impact male fertility?

A varicose vein in the scrotum is a reflection of varicoceles, which are enlarged veins that drain the testicle on that side of the scrotum. Varicoceles can result in poor sperm parameters resulting in male subfertility. Waste products are not carried away efficiently from the testicle in these dilated or enlarged veins and result in oxidative stress on the testicle hence affecting the quality of the sperms produced. Men with varicoceles will also have an increased temperature in the testicle and heat also results in low-quality sperms.

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How can I find out if I have clogged arteries?

Arteries are the blood vessels that deliver oxygenated blood throughout your body. When a build-up of plaque clogs an artery, it can reduce or completely block blood flow. Clogged arteries are linked to an increased risk of heart attack and stroke. What are the symptoms? There are a few symptoms that you should definitely pay attention to.

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Dr Julian Tan


For chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), what are possible treatments and which doctor should I see?

To simplify medical terms, chronic venous insufficiency refers to a wide spectrum of longstanding problems with the veins (often confused with the arteries which are vessels that bring blood to the legs from the heart). The insufficiency refers to a state of reflux whereby blood is stagnant within the vein as it fails to flow back up the legs towards the heart. This most commonly occurs in the lower limbs due to effect of gravity.

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Dr Joel Foo

General Practitioner

Which doctor should I see for a Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) in Singapore?

Thank you for your question. If you believe you have a DVT, it might be worth first visiting your nearest GP or ED. You might need to be assessed and triaged correctly - this might involve an urgent ultrasound scan to determine if you have a DVT. Subsequently you may need to see a general physician as there will be a period of time on anti-coagulation. The duration depends on why it has happened and your future risk. In terms of the DVT, it usually breaks down by itself, but what we don’t want a piece to break off and become a pulmonary embolism as this can be much more serious.

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Dr Dinesh Sirisena

Sport Medicine

What are ways to treat petechiae?

Petechiae are tiny pinpoint reddish spots on the skin and is due to tiny bleeding spots in the skin. They are non blanchable, meaning that they still persistent when pressure is applied over the spots and are less than 2mm in size. Petechiae is not a diagnosis as there is usually an underlying cause for the petechiae. There are many causes of petechiae. These include: Trauma Infections eg. viral and bacterial infections Haematological problems eg. low platelets (thrombocytopaenia), leukaemia Autoimmune diseases eg.

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Dr Colin Theng


What should be in the diet of a post-angioplasty surgery patient who has poor appetite?

Surgical nutrition is something that is very important, and this covers both the pre and post-surgical periods. Without adequate nutrition, muscle wasting, immune dysfunction, and impairedrecovery can occur. In general, encouraging adequate intake of nutrients, with a focus on ensuring adequate protein intake is important. Other than just diet, early mobilization is also important to facilitate protein synthesis and muscle function. If appetite is an issue, it may be advisable to work with a dietitian todevise an oral diet, and work on preventing caloric and protein deficits.

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Dr Grace Su

General Practitioner

Why do varicose veins cause discomfort, and how can I remove them? (photo)

Varicose veins are cause by incompetent valves inside the veins itself resulting in twisting and enlargement. Usually associated with legs they can occur anywhere on the body. The valves in the vein aid blood return to your heart along with the surrounding muscles. So if the valve is faulty there is a "backlog" of blood causing the vein to enlarge more. This leads to swelling, eczema due to the varicose veins, skin thickening around the area and possibly lead to ulceration. There are many treatments one can take.

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Dr Stephen Chu


How do I get rid of spider veins and varicose veins? (photo)

Unfortunately, creams and other topical medications tend to offer only mild improvements. You need a combination of Vascular Lasers and Sclerotherapy. Spider Vein and varicose vein treatment options: 1. Vascular Lasers like Pulsed dye Lasers (eg. V Beam) and Copper bromide Lasers (e. g Dual Yellow/Pro Yellow) emit a specific wavelength of light that is absorbed by Haemoglobin in your blood vessels. This creates heat which causes narrowing and collapse of your prominent blood vessels. Costs: >$400/area. Usually requires 2-4 sessions. 2.

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