How does constipation increase the risk of colorectal cancer?

Constipation does not increase the risk of colorectal cancer. It is a common myth that constipation will increase the exposure of "toxic" contents in stools to the colonic cells, thereby increasing the risk of colorectal cancer. However, patients who suffer from constipation are not at higher risk of colorectal cancer. Constipation is also not a symptom associated with colorectal cancer. The most common symptoms of colorectal cancer are: a persistent change of bowel habit for about 1 month blood in your stools mucus in your stools a persistent sensation of incomplete passage of stools.

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Human

Is it recommended to remove benign fibroadenoma in the breast?

Fibroadenomas are among the most common non-cancerous (benign) breast lumps in young women. They typically present as painless, highly mobile and firm nodules within the breast. Mammograms and breast ultrasounds are often used for further evaluation depending on the risks, and diagnosis can be confirmed by core needle biopsy or excision biopsy. A fibroadenoma may be monitored for long-term stability, or removed by vacuum-assisted needle biopsy (VAB) or surgery. Simple fibroadenomas do not increase the risk of breast cancer.

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Dr Jipson Quah

General Practitioner

How do surgeons determine if a cyst is benign or malignant and requires removal?

Most cysts are actually benign. Malignant cysts refer to cysts that harbour cancer or those with a potential to develop into cancer. In determining whether or not they are malignant, the cysts are monitored for changes in size and consistency with regular ultrasounds. In some cases, you might also need to get an MRI. The surgeon would choose the necessary treatment based on symptoms such as: Pain Enlargement of the cyst size Presence of solid tissue within the cyst Treatment does not necesarry mean removal.

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Dr Ooi Wei Seong

Oncologist

What are the early signs of brain cancer or tumor?

Most times, there are very little signs or symptoms of growth in the brain. It can also present with innocuous headaches if there is a rise in intracranial pressure. These headaches are usually progressive and get worse over time. There may be associated with nausea and vomiting, and the headache usually feels better after you have vomited. If the tumour occupies the part of the brain that carries out an essential function, the patient will get specific signs like, a decrease in vision, weakness, change in personality.

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Human

How much does colon cancer surgery cost in Singapore, and is it Medisave claimable in private?

Colon cancer surgery is complex and requires a team of specialists, nurses and specialised equipment. The average number of days in hospital is 7-10 days after the operation. As the cost depends on the complexity of the case and the technique used, it is difficult to quote a number but it would roughly range from $40,000 to $70,000 all inclusive. Colorectal cancer surgery is Medisave and insurance claimable. It would be best to contact your insurance provider as they are the best persons to answer your policy questions.

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Dr Nan Yaw Wong

Colorectal Surgeon

Are there any alternatives to chemotherapy for breast cancer after a mastectomy?

First and foremost, I am sorry to hear about your diagnosis of breast cancer and I hope you are recovering well from your surgery. In the treatment of any cancer, it is always important to consider the stage of the tumour (how advanced it is, how much it has spread) and also certain features of the tumour which can affect how aggressive the tumour is (grade, hormone receptor status, HER2 protein status etc). From your question, I am assuming your cancer surgeon has performed a mastectomy (whole breast removal) with clear margins and has advised you to go for chemotherapy.

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Dr Tzeyeong Teng

General Practitioner

What cases of colon cancer can be treated with a transanal endoscopic surgery?

Transanal endoscopic surgery is a method of keyhole surgery without creating a scar by using the anus as a natural orifice access. A camera and 2 small keyhole instruments can be inserted to allow the surgery to be performed. It is used to remove benign growths in the rectum that are deeper than the reach of the surgeon's finger. This is indicated for benign tumours between 7-12cm from the anus.

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Human

What are stem cells and what is stem cell therapy? How useful is it in treating brain tumours?

Stem cells are a special type of cells that have the capacity to self-renew indefinitely and can give rise to multiple cell lineages. They are present throughout life and vary in their potential for further specialization. Some can give rise to all tissue types (pluripotent) while others are restricted to the cell types within one organ. The potential for these advanced cell therapies to completely change the treatment of diseases is immense. However, to date, the overall number of proven stem cell therapies remain small. They also require rigorous scientific and clinical evaluations.

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Dr Nicolas Kon

Neurosurgeon

What are the signs and symptoms of prostate cancer?

Early prostate cancer is usually asymptomatic i. e. there are no symptoms. Men with prostate cancer are usually detected based on abnormal examination during digital rectal examination where nodules are felt on the prostate gland and/or due to abnormal blood investigations (elevated serum prostate-specific antigen levels). When the cancer is locally advanced, the patient may present with LUTS or lower urinary tract symptoms (e. g. urgency, slow stream) or even blood in the urine. Prostate cancer tends to spread to the bone.

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What should I do if my cancer antigen 125 (CA125) tumour marker are elevated?

The CA 125 is a protein found in the blood and is often used as a tumour marker for ovarian cancer. The normal value is usually between 0 to 35 units/ml. CA 125 can be elevated in both benign and malignant conditions, so having a raised CA 125 does not mean you have cancer. In about 1% of healthy women, it is slightly elevated in the absence of disease.

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Dr Timothy Lim

Gynaecologist

When is a colostomy required for colon cancer surgery?

There are 2 types of colostomy : temporary and permanent. During colorectal cancer surgery, the segment of bowel containing the cancer is removed and healthy bowels are joined back together to form a joint, or what surgeons call an anastomosis. For cancers that are near the anus muscles (so called low tumours), the chance of leakage after the anastomosis is formed is higher than cancers that are further away from the anus (high tumours).

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Answered By

Dr Nan Yaw Wong

Colorectal Surgeon

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