History and physical examination are central to the diagnostic workup in nephrology.

The history typically includes the present illness, family history, general medical history, diet, medication use, drug use and occupation.

The physical examination typically includes an assessment of volume state, blood pressure, heart, lungs, peripheral arteries, joints, abdomen and flank.


Kidney problems can have significant impact on quality and length of life, and so psychological support, health education and advanced care planning play key roles in nephrology.

When the kidneys are no longer able to sustain the demands of the body, end-stage kidney failure is said to have occurred.

Without dialysis, death from kidney failure will eventually result. Dialysis is an artificial method of replacing some kidney function to prolong life.

At present, renal transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage kidney failure although its worldwide availability is limited by lack of availability of donor organs.

Recent Questions

What are the signs and symptoms that I am allergic to alcohol? Does it include the temporal loss of sight and sound?

The temporal loss of sight and sound is called syncope or brief fainting spells. It can actually be quite dangerous. It happens because your body is not able to deal with the high dose of alcohol. It might be a good idea for you to stay off alcohol. The greatest danger is if you faint and suffer a head injury. For allergies, it can differ from person to person. Most people who have allergies might not even realise that they have it. The common allergies that we see are itchiness in some parts of the body as well as rashes.

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Answered By

Dr Paul Ang

General Practitioner

How does haemodialysis work?

Patients whose kidneys have failed completely (end-stage renal disease) require some form of therapy to replace the function of their kidneys in order to sustain life. Haemodialysis is one of three forms of renal replacement therapy, with the other 2 being peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation. About haemodialysis In haemodialysis, a machine moves your blood through a filter which helps to remove toxic wastes before returning the blood to you.

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Answered By

Dr Fang Jann Lee


Recent Sessions

Diet, Diabetes & Hypertension

Dr Francisco is accredited as a Specialist Nephrologist (with admitting privileges) at multiple hospitals in Singapore. He also has his own private practice, "Francisco Kidney & Medical Centre". His main clinical interests are the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of several kidney disorders.

Diabetes and hypertension (high blood pressure) are important causes of kidney problems. Overweight and obesity are also linked. In addition, patients with kidney problems due to other causes are more susceptible to develop metabolic problems like diabetes, high cholesterol, gout and hypertension.

Diet, exercise, habit modifications and loss of weight are central in the management of these conditions and kidney problems, and the prevention of disease occurrence or progression.

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