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Below are high risk behaviours that would put you at a higher risk of getting STI and HIV: Unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse Unprotected oral intercourse. Engaging in sexual activity from a young age. Sexually active with multiple partners Sexually active with a high-risk partner (one who is engaged in these high risk behaviours) Working in the sex trade industry Having intercourse with a partner who engages in injected illicit drug use.
Dr Theng has given a wonderful answer. Oral sex is generally considered safe but there is a low risk of transmission if there are some open wounds which may not be obvious.
Yes, doctors with tattoos (including locums), nurses, and other health professionals are allowed to practise in Singapore. Healthcare professionals are all subject to a health screening, which includes a HIV and hepatitis test, before being allowed to practise. Is there ANY known transmission of HIV through a used lancet in medical literature? Yes, there are of course cases of HIV transmission through used needles, which is why HIV was fairly rampant amongst IV drug users who shared needles in the past.
The best way to determine a HIV infection is to have a screening after the window period, which is between 1 to 3 months after an exposure. It is advisable to go for a HIV test at month 1, and to repeat the test at month 3 to obtain a conclusive result. Most people with HIV do not show any signs and symptoms. However, some may have a flu-like illness with: Swollen lymph nodes Fever Discomfort Rash lasting about 2 – 3 weeks soon after acquiring HIV. Very often, people do not have signs and symptoms for several years.
Source: http://www. poz. com/pdfs/P04-14p53. risk_transmission. pdf Here's a great infographic that sums up the risks of HIV transmission from various sexual activities. Here's another useful tool from the CDC that allows you to calculate your risks of getting HIV, assuming your partner is HIV positive: https://wwwn. cdc. gov/hivrisk/estimator. html The CDC conducted a systematic review in 2014 to estimate the per act risk of getting HIV through various sexual activities, including oral sex.
Thank you for the question. For HIV test, there is a window period, which is the period between the time of exposure to the time the test is able to detect the infection. For 4th generation HIV test, the window peroid is 4 weeks and for 3rd generation HIV test, it is 3 months. So with your 2 tests at 1 and 3 months negative, it is highly unlikely that you have caught an HIV infection. In recent HIV infection, the presentation can be very non specific, like any viral infection. However, years later, it can present with recurrent infections or unusual infections due to reduced immunity.
Only a few suppliers are registered in Singapore to distribute test kits and they are only allowed to supply to medical clinics. This is based on the approval of Health Sciences Authority (HSA) and Ministry of Health (MOH). The quality and accuracy of the test kits sold online cannot be guaranteed. Moreover, there is no way to ensure the patients are conducting the tests properly and that their results are accurate. In Singapore, doctors have to undergo training in order to perform these rapid tests in the clinic.
Thank you for the question. Early signs of HIV can be look like that of an other viral infection or flu. Fever, body aches, headaches, sore throat, skin rashes, nause and diarrhoea are some of the commons that you may experience. You may also experience swelling of the lymph nodes. This can occur between 2 to 4 weeks after the transmission of the virus. As these symptoms are very non-specific, it is important to consider testing if you have had recent unprotected sex or high risk exposure.
Contact tracing is the process of identifying relevant contacts of a person with an infectious disease and ensuring that they are aware of their exposure. For sexually transmitted infections (STIs), relevant contacts include those with whom the patient (index case) has had sex during infectious period. Contact Tracing is important in preventing and controlling sexually transmitted infections in the community as well as protecting your loved ones or those whom you have parted ways with safe from infections.
The risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) from unprotected sex depends on a few factors. If the sexual partner has had multiple sexual partners and or is high-risk partner eg. commercial sex worker, the risk of contracting an STI will be significantly higher. If you have multiple partners and engage in unprotected sex, the risk will be very much higher too. If you or your partner is having an active infection or having blisters, sores and ulcers at the genital area, the risk of contracting an STI is also increased.
There is a small risk of HIV transmission , as well as a more moderate risk of herpes simplex, gonorrhea and the human papilloma virus (HPV). There is an increased incidence now recognised of oral pharyngeal cancer related to previous HPV infection through oral sex. Please take precautions for protecting yourself eg use of condoms.
Anonymous HIV testing does not require the person to provide any names, NRIC numbers or contact numbers. Instead, a number is usually assigned to the test which allows the person being tested to receive the test results. No personal particulars are recorded, even with positive results of the HIV tests. There are quite a number of clinics in Singapore providing this service. You can just google for the list of clinics. You can type 'Anonymous testing for HIV', and the list of clinics will appear. You can also choose a clinic near your place.
In general, bacteria and viruses do not survive long outside the body (the organisms die in minutes to hours), hence they do not spread via toilet seats, swimming pools etc. However, they may be transmitted via bodily fluids such as semen and vaginal fluids, especially so if there is a break in the skin or mucosal membranes. Please see a doctor if you suspect that you may have contracted an STD as thorough follow-up and investigations are required.
I am personally not aware of any such cases in Singapore. HIV testing is done by a blood test or oral swabs. New sterile single use needles and swabs are used for the blood test and oral swabs so there is no risk of catching of HIV by doing the screening test.
The risk is remote but not impossible. 1) It would be best to avoid casual sex encounters. 2) If you really want to take the risk, you can wear gloves and put on condoms.